Callable and Runnable Examples – ExecutorService

ExecutorService – Callable and Runnable Example
In this article let us see an example using Runnable and Callable tasks using ExecutorService.

Please refer here for Overview of ExecutorService

Runnable Example
Runnable does not return any value and cannot throw checked exceptions

Output:

NOTE:
From the output, we can notice how the executorservice works. We haven’t used Synchronized keyword in any of our methods, but ExecutorService makes sure one thread accesses the methods at a time.

Callable Example
Callable can return Future objects and can throw checked exceptions

Output:

We  have used future object to return string, Future object can return Integer, Boolean etc.
Sample example of using Boolean for the above code,

 

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ExecutorService – An Overview

ExecutorService in Java

What is Executor Service?
Executor service is an interface, which allows us to process tasks asynchronously by threads.

Why ExecutorService over Threads?

ExecutorService has many advantages when compared with using casual threads,

ExecutorService takes care of threads creation for us and also re-uses threads. In java thread creation is expensive as it has to reserve the memory for each threads.  so with ExecutorService, we can create/manage/control life cycle of Threads. Also, ExecutorService provides us with methods like shutdown() and shutdownnow(), When closes the executorservice and will not accept anymore new tasks.

When we use callable in executors, we can get return result for the process.  invokeany() and invokeall() help us to run any or all threads at once.

How to create an ExecutorService?
These are some of the commonly used types of executorservices,

ExecutorService executorService = Executors.newFixedThreadPool(<size>);
ScheduledExecutorService scheduledExecutorService = Executors.newScheduledThreadPool(<size>);
ExecutorService cachedThreadPool = Executors.newCachedThreadPool();
ExecutorService singleThreadPool = Executors.newSingleThreadExecutor();

How to create tasks?
We can create tasks that is either Runnable or Callable. Both instances are executed by another thread. So what is the difference between Runnable and Callable tasks?

Runnable

Callable

Runnable doesn’t return a value Callable can return a value
Runnable cannot throw checked exceptions Callable can throw checked exceptions

Once we have implemented the tasks, we use ExecutorService to execute() or submit() the tasks.  What is the difference between execute() and submit()?

execute() – Return type is void
submit() – Returns future object for managing the tasks.

Future Object:

Using Future object we can get the status of callable tasks.  Future.get() method can wait till the callable task is finished and will return the result

invokeAll() – Executes the given tasks, returning a list of Futures holding their status and results when all complete.

invokeAny() – Executes the given tasks, returning the result of one that has completed successfully, without exception.

Shutdown() – Shutdowns the ExecutorService after completing all the submitted tasks and will not accept any new tasks.

ShutdownNow() – Stops all the executing tasks and returns the list of tasks waiting for execution.

We have covered basics of ExecutorService.

 

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Generics in Java with Examples

Generics in Java with Examples

Generics allows us to pass the generic types as parameters to a class or methods.
Example: class A<T>

Generics Advantages:

  • Stronger type checking
  • Casting elimination

Type Parameter Naming Conventions:

  • E – Element
  • K – Key
  • V – Value
  • N – Number
  • T – Type

There are various ways of using Generics, In this post let us see, generics with

  • Upper Bounded Wildcards
  • Unbounded Wildcards
  • Lower Bounded Wildcards

First let us see an example of using generics along with the class

Output:

Now let us see another example of using Generics with Key and Value along with Upper Bound Wildcards, Unbounded Wildcard and Lower Bound Wildcards.

Wildcards usually starts with “?” – Example: List<? extends Number>

Upper Bound Wildcards
Used to relax restrictions on a variable. In the below example we have used upperBound wildcard to pass integers, calculate sum of it and change it double and print it.

Unbounded Wildcards:
Unbounded wildcards is used for unknown types. It can be of any type, Integer or String or object etc..

Lower Bound Wildcards:
Lower Bound Wildcards restricts the unknown type to be specific. (Upper Bound relaxes the restrictions)

 

 

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Bitwise Operators in Java – Right Shift, Left Shift and Unsigned Right Shift

Bitwise Operators in Java – Right Shift, Left Shift and Unsigned Right Shift:
Java Operators are basically divided into six types,

  • Arithmetic Operators
  • Relational Operators
  • Assignment Operators
  • Conditional Operators
  • Logical Operators
  • Bitwise Operators

In this article, We are going to cover Bitwise Operators. We might face some questions in interviews regarding Bitwise operators. So lets us understand what are bitwise operators with examples.

There are 3 types of Bitwise Operators,

  • Left Shift
  • Right Shift
  • Unsigned Right Shift

Before going ahead, Let us understand what these operators do,

Left Shift Operator:

  • Left shift Operator is declared as <<
  • Left shift operator performs the operation of Multiplication
  • The sign of the the integer, Positive or negative impacts the result of left shift operator
  • Example:
    • 2 << 5
    • Output will be 64. (2^0 * 2^1*…2^5)

Right Shift Operator:

  • Right shift operator is declared as >>
  • Right shift operator performs the operation of Division
  • The sign of the integer, Positive or negative impacts the result of Right Shift Operator
  • Example:
    • 2 >> 5
    • Output: 0, (5 is divided by 2)

Unsigned Right Shift Operator:

  • Unsigned Right Shift Operator is declared as >>>
  • Irrespective of sign, It shifts the bits to 0.
  • Example: -14 >>> 2
    • This is include 2 zero’s (>>>2 — we are requesting it to shift 2 bits) to the left, followed by the value

Once we go through the example, We will be able to understand this clearly.

Output:

op1

Now let us see how this output works,

First we are getting the binary value of Both +7 and -7

7 << 2: Left shift is for multiplication,
so,

7^0 = 7
7^1=7
7^2=14
Actual value is 28 and Binary value is 11100 –> Left Shift Operator Output.

Now for the Second Output,
Right Shift Operator is for division,

7 >> 2: Right Shift for Division,

2 Divided by 7, Not divisible so the value is 1. –> Right Shift Operator Output

Now the Unsigned Right Shift Operator,

7 >> 2 and 7>>>2 are always same, except 2 Zero’s are added to the left of the output. 
-7 >>> 2:
Binary value of -7: 11111111111111111111111111111001, Now we shift 2 Zero’s to the left,
Output is,
00111111111111111111111111111110.

If we use, -7>>> 3 (3 zero’s to the left) Output will be,
00011111111111111111111111111111

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Comparable and Comparator in Java

Comparable and Comparator in Java:

What is Comparable and Comparator?
Comparable is an interface used for sorting the objects. It supports Single sorting only.
Comparator is an interface used for Sorting, but supports multiple sorting.

Difference Between Comparable and Comparator:

Comparable Comparator
Compatable interface is used for Single sorting and overrides CompareTo() Comparator interface is used for Multiple Sorting and overrides Compare()
java.lang.Comparable java.util.Comparator


Comparable Example:
In comparable, We select a single object and compare with others to sort it. In this example, We are going to select one number and compare it with other numbers and sort them.

 

Output:

comparable

Comparator Example:
In comparator, We select two objects and compare them with each other and make the sort.

Output:
comparator

 

 

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